Zero Emission Vehicles

DC Recharging Station
DC Recharging Station

What Are ZEVs ?

Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) are vehicles with no harmful tailpipe emissions and include plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs).  PEVs include both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs).

How Are PEVs Recharged ?

In general, recharging a PEV involves connecting the vehicle’s recharging cord into one of three types of electricity sources:

  • Alternating Current (AC) Level 1  –  typically uses a standard 120 volt electrical receptacle, and has the longest recharging time (overnight).
  • Alternating Current (AC) Level 2  –  typically uses a 240 volt branch circuit/ charging equipment, and recharges at approximately 3X the speed of AC Level 1.
  • Direct Current  (DC) –   typically uses 400 volt charging equipment, and can recharge in as little as 30 minutes.

What Permits Are Required For Upgrading Home Wiring For A PEV?

Modifying a home’s wiring system (e.g., adding a receptacle or branch circuit) requires an electrical permit.  “Hard wired” (i.e., not plug-in) recharging equipment must be labeled by an approved US (or Canadian affiliate) testing agency.  Local utilities also offer lower rates for PEV recharging, which typically requires the installation of a separate electrical meter.  Other installation considerations include location (i.e., weather exposed) and whole-house electrical capacity upgrade.

Check the Links below and your local utility’s and jurisdiction’s websites for additional information.



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